Thursday, May 21, 2020

Vegetarian Is it Better Than Eating Meat - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2694 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/07/29 Category Health Essay Level High school Tags: Vegetarian Essay Did you like this example? Who doesnt like bacon? It is salty, meaty, goes with anything and everything, and there is just no substitute for it. People have even started cooking it into candy. When someone states that they are a vegetarian it appears like they are instantly better than those of us who are omnivores because they have a measure of control not to eat bacon that the rest of us dont have. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Vegetarian: Is it Better Than Eating Meat?" essay for you Create order Most of us realize that vegetarianism is an expression of ones ethical orientation, so when we think of a vegetarian, we dont simply think of a person whos just like everyone else except that he or she doesnt eat meat. We think of a person who has a certain philosophical outlook, whose choice not to eat meat it a reflection of a deeper belief system in which killing animals for human ends is considered unethical. (Joy, 2011) Vegetarianism is defined by a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, while omitting animal based products such as meat and eggs. There are many reasons to choose a plant based lifestyle, the promise of weight loss or health improvement, environmental impact, and religious reasons are among the most common. Also, while not widely known, or talked about, some people adopt vegetarian diets to mask eating disorders. Vegetarians can have a hard time getting the proper amount of usable nutrients because they are not consuming the most ready source of it. Being a vegetarian can affect a persons bone density, nutrient levels, and even their ability to conceive a child. Vegetarianism can be a great way to lose weight or reduce environmental impact, but those who choose this lifestyle also need to be aware of the different nutrients that are not as readily available in plant-based foods as they are in a balanced diet containing meat products. It is the first nice weekend of the year. A woman has stepped out of her bedroom wearing shorts for the first time all year, and her husband sees her legs full of bruises. So many bruises that they blend into one another, and he cant tell where one ends and one begins. There is more purple, green, and blue colored skin on her legs and upper arms than there is flesh colored. The husband is immediately concerned for his wife. It turns out that her latest effort to lose her baby weight was to go vegetarian. However, now it has turned into vegetarian induced anemia and every time she bumps into something or touches something too hard, it leaves a bruise. Many things can cause anemia, especially for women. If people dont get enough of any certain nutrient, it will cause a deficiency. Not all nutrients and vitamins can be supplemented with taking a pill. Some are more readily available if they are eaten at their purest form in food. An iron deficiency, which would cause the anemia, is best treated with eating iron rich foods with some vitamin C rich foods because the vitamin C helps the iron get absorbed into the bloodstream properly. No weight goal is worth sacrificing the health and wellbeing of any person; however, this is exactly what many people in society do today. Being vegetarian can affect bone density even if the person is not anemic. (H., L., N., V, T., 2009) One of the keys to successfully undertaking a vegetarian diet is to plan daily and weekly meals out to avoid the potential deficiencies that are common among all vegetarians, and to make sure a balance is achieved for all nutritional needs. The most common vitamins and nutrients that a vegetarian becomes deficient in are protein, calcium, iron, vitamin B 12, and vitamin D. Since these nutrients are less prevalent in plant-based diet, some vegetarian foods are fortified with them. A nutritional supplement can also fill these gaps. The amount of usable protein they are consuming also needs to be taken into account as well considering theyre not consuming the easiest source of it, animal products. Vegetarian diets help many people looking for an easy to follow solution, to lose weight. They help people cut calories out of their diet simply because a cup of broccoli contains 30 calories well a cup of beef contains 213 cal. This leaves the body and 183 calories deficit and will lose weight. Calories in and calories out is the oldest and easiest form of dieting. Vegetarians can fill up on high fiber, high water content foods with a low calorie cost and be able to lose pounds. They still feel full and are probably eating a lot healthier than they were before. In the American diet people tend to eat a diet consisting of meat, bread, white rice, and sugars with a low emphasis on fruits and vegetables. If people take a look at the vegetarians lifestyle to see that they place a high priority of vegetables and fruit over everything else with a lower amount of carbs, they will usually get a lot healthier than they were. The fact that vegetarians can cut out calories, saturated fat, and cholesterol will help them create a healthier picture of themselves. Some people even use vegetarian diets, or other restrictive diet plans, to mask eating disorders. It becomes a way to say they cant eat a food because they are vegetarian, and it gives them the excuse to not indulge in other foods that anorexia or bulimia wont allow them to eat. Natalie (Name changed for personal protection) was extremely anorexic in high school; however, she drank a ton of soda, because she was a teenager and it was socially acceptable for her to drink Mountain Dew at dinner and say she ate earlier while still looking like she was consuming calories. She claimed to her friends that she was a vegetarian and wouldnt eat when they stopped at McDonalds for game dinners after cheerleading. Natalie told her parents she ate all the time with her cheerleading squad, or at school. No one saw her eat. Natalie admitted a few years afterward that she drank diet Mountain Dew to be able to partake in a social eating activity. Telling everyone she was a vegetarian allowed her to m ask that she was extremely anorexic and unhealthy. The one thing that saved her was getting pregnant with her son. Natalie knew she had to take care of her body to be able to take care of her baby. After she took care of her body for her baby, she knew she could take control over food in her life again. She cured herself of her immediate anorexia, although it never entirely goes away. Natalies story is not the exception. About half of all patients seeking treatment for anorexia nervosa, a reported 45 to 54%, practice some form of a vegetarian diet. This is critical information for treatment because professionals have to figure out the persons motivations for being vegetarian while balancing respect for his or her body autonomy. Vegetarianism can be viewed suspiciously in these circumstances as it seems to give those struggling with restricting food a way of masking attempts to lose weight, or the avoidance of eating certain foods. Its a way to let the eating disorders out in public while masking it with restrictive diets. Using restrictive diets to mask eating disorders also allows people not to accept food at a party, or force them to bring their own food to a social gathering. It also gives an excuse not go out to eat with friends. If nearly half of people seeking treatment for anorexia are admitting that they were vegetarians because it was an easy way to contr ol their eating disorder, then vegetarianism, along with any other restrictive diet, is something that needs to be looked at closer for those who have a predisposition for eating disorders. For those who bring up the environment as the reason to eat a plant based diet, the numbers there are quite different depending on the perspective you take. While every body is different the common consensus from nutritionists is that adult males and females need approximately 2000 calories to perform their daily bodily functions. To grow a thousand calories of broccoli it emits 5.9 planetary emissions, subsequently it only takes 4.8 emissions to grow 1000 calories of chicken. (Vegetarian or. Omnivore, 2014) While broccoli is seen as a superfood, a persons body still needs the same 2000 calories to fuel it every day. Broccoli is near the top when ranked in missions per calorie. If a person were to eat 2000 calories of chicken to their daily needs intake, their planetary emissions would only be 9.6. However if the same person took 2000 calories of tomatoes to fill their daily caloric needs their planetary emissions would be 12.2. If we look at someone who chooses to be vegetarian base d on the environmental impact of their food choices, its almost worse than those who are omnivores and eat a mix of both. (Kateman, 2017) While religious beliefs can have an impact on societys diets, it is usually expressed as asceticism, so that the motivation is spiritual, rather than ethical. Vegetarianism in these instances is equated with restraint, spirituality and dissent, while meat eating is associated with wealth, strength and social position. (Spencer, 1993) In many different cultures a form of vegetarianism is practiced or encourages. Buddhism is among the most well-known for its vegetarian practices in conjunction with their religion. According to several different studies vegetarians do consume less alcohol and have a lower body mass index is. (Vegetarianism, 2012) However, they were still in worse physical and mental health overall. Vegetarian food is widely thought of to be healthier than that of a traditional meat and vegetable diet; however, cardiologists have found that vegetarian food can be just as bad because it involves eating a lot of sweets, junk food, refined grains, and potatoes. These foods have been linked to a higher risk of heart disease and high cholesterol. All studies show that vegetarians are still at risk for cancer, type-2 diabetes, and heart disease just like everybody else. The higher intakes of vegetables and whole grain products can carry an elevated risk of cancer, allergies, and mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. (It is from not eating all that bacon!) Its also been found vegetarians had poor health practices such as avoiding going to doctors appointments for preventative checkups and vaccines. Also it appears that vegetarians have a lower quality of life and require more medical treatment for cures rather than preventative measures. (Vegetarians are less healthy and have a lower quality of life than meat-eaters, 2018) For men and women, vegetarian diets can be harmful when trying to conceive. Soy products such as tofu, soy sausages, bacon, burgers, and soy milk, yogurt, cheese, and ice cream tend to have a lot of phytoestrogen in them. Men who eat a lot of soy commonly have lower sperm counts than men that dont, even just eating half a serving a day can lower their fertility. The more soy men eat the less sperm they produce. (Konkel, 2009) Along those same lines vitamin A (retinol) plays a healthy role in maintaining a healthy immune system but also helps in both male and female reproduction. Vitamin A helps the male body produce healthy sperm, and for women its not only vital to the production of a healthy ovum, but it also aids with the implantation and sustaining of the pregnancy. The richest sources of vitamin A are cod liver oil, liver, seafood, beef, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. All of these are not vegetarian approved. While people can get synthetic vitamin A fortified in certain food s, they are not the best sources and not consistently the easiest used in the body. There are certain times when vegetarian diets can help those suffering from certain elements to cure or less and their symptoms. Vegetarian diets can help protect against certain cancers and heart disease in some cases. Researchers have found that vegan diets protected against female specific cancers and overall cancers in both genders. It also can be linked to the higher intakes of fiber and phytochemicals and lower intake so saturated fat and cholesterol are among the main factors responsible for these cancer protective benefits. Vegetarian diets are usually higher in fiber. People with higher intakes of dietary fiber are at a significantly decreased risk for heart disease stroke hypertension diabetes gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. (Pollan, 2006) They also found that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index and increased rates of obesity in children. If a person has high cholesterol switching to a mostly vegetarian diet can cut those cholesterol levels significantly, therefore lowering the rest of heart disease. A vegetarian diet is virtually cholesterol free. Vegetarian diets also help lower the consumption of saturated fat because they are no longer eating the animal fat associated with meat eaters and omnivores. Whenever a person adopts a vegetarian diet they can increase their energy level through the higher consumption of fruits and vegetables in their diet versus beforehand of just meats and carbs. (Foer, 2013) Vegetarian diets generally have a much higher consumption of fruits vegetables but when planning weekly meals, people need to make sure they are balancing their entire day and week with the correct amount of vitamins and nutrients they need. The amount of vegetarian recipes that are available on the internet is astounding but in looking at older cookbooks there are very few recipes for exclusive vegetarian meals because of the way that the American diets has evolved. Some people choose to live their lives without bacon. There are various reasons why someone would want to live the vegetarian lifestyle ranging from health reasons, to environmental tolls. The one thing all vegetarians need to do, regardless of their reasons, is make sure they have a balanced diet to include all of the vitamins and minerals that our bodies need. In this age it is easier than ever to get a full range of nutrients from a plant based diet, and those looking to be vegetarian only need to be resourceful with their food plans. Vegetarianism can be a great way to lose weight or reduce environmental impact, but those who choose this lifestyle also need to be aware of the different nutrients that are not as readily available in plant-based foods as they are in a balanced diet containing meat products References: Foer, J. S. (2013). Eating animals. Vancouver: Access and Diversity, Crane Library, University of British Columbia. H., L., N., V, T. (2009, July 01). Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: A Bayesian meta-analysis | The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Oxford Academic. Retrieved September 25, 2018, from https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/90/4/943/4597049 Joy, M. (2011). Why we love dogs, eat pigs, and wear cows: An introduction to carnism: The belief system that enables us to eat some animals and not others. Berkeley, CA: Conari. Kateman, B. (2017). The reducetarian solution: How the surprisingly simple act of reducing the amount of meat in your diet can transform your health and the planet. NY, NY: TarcherPerigee. Konkel, L. (2009, November 03). Could Eating Too Much Soy Be Bad for You? Retrieved September 25, 2018, from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/soybean-fertility-hormone-isoflavones-genistein/ Leonard, C. (2015). The meat racket: The secret takeover of Americas food business. New York: Simon Schuster Paperbacks. Nestle, M. (2003). Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. Ogle, M. (2013). In meat we trust: An unexpected history of carnivore America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Pollan, M. (2006). The Omnivores Dilemma; A Natural History of Four Meals. New York, NY: The Penguin Press. Spencer, C. (1996). The heretics feast: A history of vegetarianism. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. Vegetarian or omnivore: The environmental implications of diet. (2014, March 10). Retrieved September 25, 2018, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/food/vegetarian-or-omnivore-the-environmental-implications-of-diet/2014/03/10/648fdbe8-a495-11e3-a5fa-55f0c77bf39c_story.html Vegetarianism. (2012, October 12). Retrieved September 25, 2018, from https://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/PH/NutritionModules/Popular_Diets/Popular_Diets_print.html Vegetarians are less healthy and have a lower quality of life than meat-eaters. (2018, March 31). Retrieved September 27, 2018, from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/vegetarians-are-less-healthy-and-have-a-lower-quality-of-life-than-meateaters-scientists-say-9236340.html Vegetarian Anemia (2018, October 18). [Personal account]. Eggebrecht, T. (2018, September 25). Personal interview.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

War Poem Comparison Essay - 1727 Words

Gavin Ross Pre-Entry Access Class – English Module Tutors – Aimee McNair and Kevin Wilson Q. In an essay of not more than 1,500 words compare and contrast ONE PAIR of the two pairs of poems printed below. Your answer should exhibiy a clear understanding of each poem’s meaning and tone, and you should consider the effect and importance of formal features, such as rhyme scheme, sound patterning, word choice, figurative language and punctuation. Date handed in : 31st January 2011 This essay will compare the poems â€Å"On Passing the New Menin Gate† by Siegfried Sassoon (1927) and â€Å"Anthem For Doomed Youth† by Wilfred Owen (1917) and decipher whether there are any contrasts of worthwhile note. It will explore the meanings of†¦show more content†¦Sassoon and Owen’s rhetorical style help connect the reader to the events being described and communicate successfully their feelings of anguish about the war. Sassoon and Owen further communicate their contempt for the war and its unforgiving treatment of the soldiers through the use of alliteration. Sassoon says, â€Å"Paid, with a pile of peace-complacent stone† (line 7). The sarcastic use of â€Å"Paid† suggests Sassoon does not believe the Menin Gate to be a worthwhile reward. The personification of the monument when Sassoon says, â€Å"peace-complacent stone† (line 7) creates the idea that the monument has an unjustified feeling of self-worth and import ance and stands arrogantly, believing itself to be a comparable reward to the loss of life and misery endured by thousands of soldiers and families. The repetition of the letter â€Å"p† makes it sound as though Sassoon is spitting his words out in a bitter and degrading manner and is effective in demonstrating his anger about the perceived ignorance displayed by the memorial (Internet 10). Owen also achieves an emphatic effect when he uses alliteration in â€Å"Anthem For Doomed Youth† when he says, â€Å"Only the stuttering rifles’ rapid rattle† (line 3). This harsh sounding repetition of the letter â€Å"r† is used for the purpose of sound imagery to help convey the horrors ofShow MoreRelatedEssay Comparison of Three First World War Poems1162 Words   |  5 PagesComparison of Three First World War Poems The three poems that I will be studying in this essay are â€Å"Dulce Et Decorum Est† by Wilfred Owen, â€Å"Comrades: An Episode† by Robert Nichols and â€Å"Who’s For The Game?† by Jessie Pope. These poems are about the First World War and two of them seem to have a negative attitude criticising and downgrading the so-called spectacular experience of the First World War. In â€Å"Dulce Et Decorum Est† Wilfred Owen seems to mention good aspectsRead MoreDulce Et Decorum Est Comparison with Whos for the Game1550 Words   |  7 Pages The poems I have chosen to compare in this essay are Wilfred Owens â€Å"Dulce Et Decorum Est† and Jessie Popes â€Å"Whos For The Game?†. The two poems I have chosen to compare are both about the first world war. Yet the two poems have very different opinions on the Great War. My first poem, Dulce et decorum, is against the war and the injustice of it all. It is narrated by one of the soldiers who is fighting in the Great War and having to face the horrors of war. On the contrary my second poem, WhosRead MoreDefamiliarization in Relation to Winfred Owens Poem Anthem for Doomed Youth726 Words   |  3 Pages In this Essay I will discuss defamiliarization in relation to Wifred Owen’s poem â€Å"Anthem for Doomed Youth†. I will examine how his use of defamiliarization affects the reader in their understanding of the poem. 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The poem describes horror, death, civilian casualties and lasting

MRI Radiation †Dangers Benefits Free Essays

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new technology for making images of the brain and other parts of the body. The technique depends on detection of a phenomenon called nuclear magnetic resonance, and also sometimes called NMR scanning. The discovery and development of MRI imaging is one of the most spectacular and successful events in the history of medical imaging. We will write a custom essay sample on MRI Radiation – Dangers Benefits or any similar topic only for you Order Now The nuclei of some atoms in the body are composed of numbers of nuclear particles. Such nuclei can be detected by sending weak energy signals through very strong magnetic fields. The MRI machine consists of a set of powerful magnets and a source of energy in the same general range used for broadcasting radio. The radio signal is affected in predictable ways by the number of odd-numbered nuclei in its path (Oldendorf; Boller, Grafman and Robertson). The MRI Procedure The MRI contains the massive main magnet, which is always on. The unit structure is approximately six or seven feet high and equally wide. As a patient, you will lie on your back on a special table that slides into the magnet through a two-foot-wide tunnel in the middle of the machine. Whether you go in head or feet first depends on the tissue being imaged. Be prepares for a loud knocking noise; this is not a silent machine. The loud knocking noise is caused by the gradients (small magnets) expanding against the supporting brackets. The MRI scanner will able to pick out voxels (three-dimensional cubes) maybe only one millimeter on each side. It will make a two-dimensional or three-dimensional map of tissue type. The computer will integrate this information and create two dimensional images (the usual) or three-dimensional models. The whole procedure takes from 30-60 minutes (Moe). Advantages and Disadvantages Due to the nature of the magnetic probe used in MRI, this technique possesses several fundamental advantages: 1) tissue can be characterized in a number of ways, 2) any plane can be imaged 3) bone is invisible, so all anatomic regions can be examined, and harper images are produced 4) no contrast medium is required and 5) there is no ionizing radiation, which makes it safe for children and for repeated scanning of the same person 6) the level of detailed exceeds the detail of other imaging techniques. At the present time, there are also several disadvantages 1) he complexity and high cost 2) the long scan time, 3) the noise isolation experienced by patient during scan and 4) the exclusion of substantial fraction of patients dues to pacemakers, metallic artifacts, and inability to cooperate. Furthermore, magnetic strength can be a dangerous thing. Stories abound the magnet’s power to pull metal objects (such as paper clips, keys, scissors, stethoscopes, IV poles, and even oxygen tanks) toward the patient and into the machine. Even worse, accidents have occurred with metal inside a patient. After an MRI, a metal worker went blind because the magnet moved microscopic metal particles in his eyes, damaging their surrounding structures. A survivor of and aneurysm died during an MRI because the magnet tore off the metal clips holding together a blood vessel in her brain, causing her to bleed to death. The patient must stay absolutely motionless during the procedure. (Minor motion does not have as much impact on a CT scan.) Therefore, a sedative is often necessary for a child having an MRI scan. The first three of these are under active development, and improvement can be expected. However, gradient coil noise, pacemakers and metallic artifacts are more fundamental problems for which solutions are not yet apparent (Stergiopoulos). MRI in association with CT Magnetic resonance imaging is another method for displaying anatomy in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. The slice thickness of the images vary between 1 and 10 mm. MRI is especially good for coronal and sagittal imaging, whereas axial imaging is the forte of CT. One of the main strengths of MRI is its ability to detect small changes (contrast) within soft tissues, and MRI soft tissue contrast is better than that found in CT images and radiographs. CT and MR imaging modalities are digital-cased technologies that require computers to convert digital information to shades of black, white and gray. The major difference in the two technologies is that in MRI the patient is exposed o external magnetic fields and radio frequency waves, whereas the patient is exposed to x-rays during a CT study. The magnetic fields used in MRI are believed to be harmless. MR scanning can be a problem for people who are prone to develop claustrophobia because they are surrounded by a tunnel-like structure for approximately 30-45 minutes. The external appearance of an MRI scanner or machine is similar to a CT scanner with the exception that the opening is the MR gantry is more tunnel-like. As in CT, the patient is comfortably positioned supine, prone, or decubitus on a couch. The couch moves only when examining the extremities. The patient hears and feels a jackhammer-like thumping while the study is in progress. The underlying physics of MRI is complicated and strange-sounding terms proliferate. Let’s keep it simple: MRI is essentially the imaging of protons. The most commonly imaged proton is hydrogen, as it is abundant in the human body and is easily manipulated by a magnetic field. However other nuclei can be imaged. Because the hydrogen proton has a positive charge and is constantly spinning at a fixed frequency, called the spin frequency, a small magnetic field with a north and south pole surrounds the proton. Remember that moving charged particles creates a surrounding magnetic field. Thus, these hydrogen protons act like magnets and align themselves within an external magnetic field or the needle of a compass. In the MR scanner, or magnet, short bursts of radio frequency waves are broadcast into the patient from radio transmitters. The broadcast radio wave frequency is the same as the spin frequency of the proton being imaged (hydrogen in this case). The hydrogen protons absorb the broadcast radio wave energy and become energized, or resonate. Hence, the term magnetic resonance. Once the radio-frequency wave broadcast is discontinued, the protons revert or decay back to their normal or steady state that existed prior to the radio wave broadcast. As the hydrogen protons decay back to their normal state or relax, they continue to resonate and broadcast radio waves that can be detected by a radio wave receiver set to the same frequency as the broadcast waves and the hydrogen proton spin frequency. The intensity of the radio wave signal detected by the receiver coil indicates the numbers and locations of the resonating hydrogen protons. Although human anatomy is always the same no matter what the imaging modality, the appearances of anatomic structures are very different on MR and CT images. Sometimes it is difficult for the beginner to differentiate between a CT and an MR image. The secret is to look to the fat. If the subcutaneous fat is black, it is a CT image as fat appears black on studies that use x-rays. If the subcutaneous fat is white (high-intensity signal), then it has to be an MR. next, look to the bones. Bones should have a gray medullary canal and a white cortex on radiographs and CT images. The medullary canal contains bone marrow, and the gray is due to the large amount of fat in bone marrow. On a MR image, nearly all of the bone appears homogenously white as the bone marrow is fat that emits a high-intensity signal and appears white. Also, on MR the cortex of the bone will appear black (dark or low intensity signal), whereas on CT images the cortex is white. Soft tissues and organs appear as shades of gray on CT and MR. Air appears black on CT and MR. air appears black on CT and has a low-intensity signal (black or dark) on MR (Moe). Intraoperative MRI At present, MRI is, by far, the most useful imaging modality for visualizing intracerebral tumors. It provides the most clear, detailed, and comprehensive diagnostic information regarding the tumor ad surrounding normal structures. The introduction of MRI and image-guided technology into the operating room thus allows the surgeon to use high-quality, current image data that reflect the surgical reality of brain tissue deformations and shifts that occur after the bone flap has been turned, the dura opened, and the resection begun. Today’s intraoperative MRI systems can be classified into two main groups: 1) the high field strength systems and 2) the low compact systems. Both types of systems have advantages and disadvantages. The high-field strength systems (0.5-1.5 T) are typically mounted on a stationary gantry and have gradient capabilities sufficient to produce full head images of quality comparable to that of diagnostic MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging can satisfy these requirements for therapy. It has excellent anatomic resolution for targeting, high sensitivity for localizing tumors, and temperature sensitivity for online treatment monitoring. Several MRI parameters are temperature sensitive; the one based on the proton resonance frequency allows relatively small temperature elevations to be detected prior to any irreversible tissue damage. Thus, the location of the focus can be detected at relatively low powers, and the accuracy of targeting can be verified. In addition, using calibrated temperature-sensitive MRI sequences, focal temperature elevations and effective thermal doses may be estimated. Such thermal quantification allows for online feedback to ensure that the treatment is safe, by assuring that the focal heating is confined to the target volume and below the level for boiling. Thermal assessment predicts effectiveness by assuring that the temperature history is sufficient to ensure thermal coagulation (Moore and Zouridakis). Conclusion Since the first availability of commercial instruments at the beginning of the 1980s, clinical MR has expanded rapidly in terms of both medical applications and the number of units installed. First considered to be expensive method to create images of inferior quality, it has since established itself as a clinical tool for diagnosis in previously inconceivable applications, and the potential of the method is still not exhausted. MRI has led to the first-scale industrial application of superconductivity and has brought about a grater public awareness of a physical effect previously known only to a handful of scientists. Up to now, the growth and spectrum of applications of MR have exceeded all predictions. The most recent development is that of rendering brain functions visible. Cardiac MR can display coronaries and analyze perfusion of the myocardium and hemodynamics of the heart. Thus, MRI is entering the domain of nuclear medicine. An interesting new application of MRI is its use as an imaging modality during minimal invasive procedures such as ablation, interstitial laser therapy, or high intensity focused ultrasound. With temperature-sensitive sequences, the development of temperature and tissue damage can be checked during heating and destroying of diseased tissue. The sensitivity of MRI to flow helps the physician to stay away from vessels during an intervention. MRI is also used for image-guided surgery, e.g., resection of tumors in the brain. Special open systems have been designed for such purposes, and dedicated non magnetic surgery tools have already been developed (Erkonen and Smith). Works Cited: Boller, Franà §ois, Jordan Grafman, and Ian H. Robertson. Handbook of Neuropsychology. Vol. 9. New York: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2003. Erkonen, William E., and Wilbur L. Smith. Radiology 101: The Basics and Fundamentals of Imaging. 2nd ed. New York: Lippincott Williams Wilkins, 2004. Moe, Barbara A. The Revolution in Medical Imaging. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2003. Moore, James E., and George Zouridakis. Biomedical Technology and Devices Handbook. New York: CRC Press, 2004. Oldendorf, William. Basics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Boston: Springer, 1988. Stergiopoulos, Stergios. Advanced Signal Processing Handbook: Theory and Implementation for Radar †¦ New York: CRC Press, 2001.       How to cite MRI Radiation – Dangers Benefits, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Swisher Motor Case Analysis Essay Example

Swisher Motor Case Analysis Paper Wayne Swisher, President and Chief Executive Office of Swisher Mower and Machine Company (SMC), was weighing the proposal of a private branding arrangement for SMC’s line of riding mowers. He thought the inquiry presented an opportunity but details should be studied more closely. Situation Analysis: Company Background: Established in 1945 by Max Swisher, SMC grew steadily with unit volume for SMC riding mowers peaking at 10,000 units with sales of $2 million in 1966. In the 1990s, the unit volume remained constant with around 4,250 riding mowers per year. Compared with 1,263,000 unit sales in riding mowers and tractors industry, SMC only occupied around 0. 3% market share. Max Swisher, the current CEO, thought maintaining a small company image had also been an important aspect of his business philosophy, which led to the good personal relationships with dealers and customers alike. SMC produced limited but differentiated products. SMC’s flagship product, the Ride King, was credited with the first zero-turning-radius riding mower. SMC also produced a trail-mower called T-44 with a cutting width of 44 inches. Kits, the self-propelled push mower, accounted for 8. 2% of SMC’s total sales, though it did not provide a material contribution to the company’s gross profits. The replacement parts for mowers posed a good business for SMC, accounting for 20% of the total sales. The following table showed the detailed comparison of the percentage in total sales and total gross profits across different modes of mower together with replacement parts. 1995 dataRide KingT-44KitsReplacement Modes of MowerRiding MowerTrail-mowerPush mower/ % of total Sales63. 60%8. 20%8. 0%20% % of Gross Profits57. 80%13. 20%029% SMC planned to broaden SMC product line in 1996 by introducing a high-wheel string trimmer product, Trim-Max, a high-wheel, walk-behind product. With manufacturing plant in Warrensburg, Missouri, SMC owned an annual capacity of 10,000 riding mower units on a single 40-hour-per-week shift with distribution mainly in non-metropolitan areas. About 75% of sales of SMC were made in non-m etropolitan areas. SMC sold 30% through wholesalers, 25% through direct-to-dealer, 40% as private-label, and the rest 5% as exports. We will write a custom essay sample on Swisher Motor Case Analysis specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Swisher Motor Case Analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Swisher Motor Case Analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It sold the Ride King through wholesalers, who located throughout the country, focusing on farm dealers situated in the south central and southeastern US. SMC remained a profitable company since its founding with a net profit return on sales of 10 percent or more annually. The sound financial position minimized the need for any major short-term or long-term financing. Industry Backgrounds: Riding lawn mowers are classified as lawn and garden equipment with two basic configurations, the front-engine lawn tractors and rear engine riding mowers. However there are some mid-engine riding mowers on the market, such as those produced by SMC. Front-engine lawn tractors are the most popular design followed by rear-engine and mid-engine models. Rear engined lawn tractors are perceived as stronger and more durable. Competition in riding lawn mower market was fierce with ten manufacturers comprising major competitors in 1995, while SMC only occupied around 0. 3%, based on sales units. All these companies made Riding mowers under a nationally branded name and at the same time were engaged in private-label production. It was estimated that private-label mowers account for 65 to 75 percent of total industry sales. Each riding mower manufacturer priced its products at price points. The representative retail prices for national and private-label riding mowers typically ranged from $800 to $5,000. The manufacturer’s price of Ride King of SMC, $ 650, was quite comparative, compared with industry average. Sales trends of riding mowers were cyclical and highly seasonal. With slice decline of sales in 1991, projections for 1995 and 1996 point toward further increases in unit volume. Industry statistics show that over half of manufacturer shipments of these products occur in the four-month period from January to April. A SWOT Analysis on current situation of SMC: InternalStrengthsWeaknesses Producto Distinct products o High quality, simple design, ease-to-use and maintain, no significant claim o Interchangeable parts o Competitive priceo Limited range of products o Perception on rear and mid engine not as strong and durable as front-engine Managemento Customer-oriented Personal relationship with dealer, distributors and end-customers o CEO expertise in marketing, VP of Sales for 6 yearso One man makes all the decision o Small business mentality Marketingo Co-op advertising with its dealers o Good relationship with dealers and end-customerso Previously neglected consumer advertising o Insufficient attention for promotion and advertising campaign o No national distribution network RDo One new product on the way (Trim Max)o Not so aggressive Financeo Consistent net profit of approx. 10 percent o Adequate cash flow to finance operation o Minimize the need for short-term or long-term financingo Poor cost management o Possible liabilities – self-insurance of products External OpportunitiesThreats Market expansiono Limited market coverage (south central, southeastern). Potential expansion to the west o New target market include consumer housing, in addition to farms o Private labels business may be growingo Many big competitors like Honda, John Deere, American Yard Production etc with stronger financial resources and economic size of capacity Industry Outlooko Growing industrieso Cyclical industry o After next year, industry may be down Technologyo Possibility for automation by technology development in long term (production streamline, cost reduction)o Imitation is allowed as patent expired Problem Statement How to grow the business since sales plateau existed for almost 20 years despite continuous profits? This is what Wayne Swisher had been concerned for several years. In early 1996, Wayne Swisher received a certified letter from a major national retail merchandise chain, inquiring about a private branding arrangement for SMC’s line of riding mowers. Wayne had to decide whether or not to accept the proposal as well as the next step to grow SMC. The Private-label Proposal Contract: A 2-year contract which could be automatically extended on a year-to-year basis, with price and other terms negotiable then. Also can be terminated by any party with a 6-month notice. ? Product: Minor changes based on Ride King ? Order: An annual order of approximately 8,200 units, a sample order of 700 standard riding mower units to be delivered in Jan1997. ? Price: FOB; 5% discount on SMC’s manufacturer’s list price for its standard model; Reorders will be at the same price Marketing: SMC did not need to make any promotion effort to either the chain or the consumers. In addition, the private label relationship with the chain should be held confidential. ? Negotiable Inventory holding payment term: The chain would carry inventories in its regional warehouse. However, only until the mowers were shipped to a company store, or only when they had been in a regional warehouse for 2 months, would title be transferred and would the 45 da ys’ payment term start to take effect. Warranty: SMC’s standard warranty would be required for all mower parts. SMC was expected to bear any labor costs resulting from warranty work at $22 per hour. Replacement parts would be sold to the chain at present price point and shipped FOB factory. Proposal evaluation To facilitate our analysis with limited information, the following reasonable assumptions are taken: a) Unit sales without cannibalization, selling prices and costs (except the additional costs mentioned in the case) of Ride King would remain the level of 1995. b) Ignore the impact of decreasing unit fixed cost with expanded production volume. ) Recognize sales in late 1996, though the sample order of 700 was to be shipped and sales were to be recognized in 1997 d) Assume consistent cannibalization rate among two-year contract period (=300 cannibalized annually/8,200 annually) e) Average the one-time costs of $10000~12000, i. e. $11,000, and the costs are expense d when accepting the proposal. f) Assume SMC could well arrange production and avoid excess OT work for PL/Ride King over the minimum of 2100 units/year. g) Assume the new mowers under proposal (â€Å"PL†) occupied the same capacity as Ride King did. ) Assume after negotiation, title can be transferred upon shipment from SMC. Sales Analysis (Table A) Total Ride King Sales, both the original and those from Private Label proposal (â€Å"PL†), would be 4,874, 12,100 and 12,100 units for year 1996~1998 respectively, with net increase of 674, 7,900 and 7,900 after cannibalization. Financial Analysis ? Additional income per unit (Table B) * As stated in Assumption b), united fixed cost is overstated. Hence, gross profit of the proposal would be slightly higher. Hence, the proposal would bring an additional per unit income of $42. 5 (gross profit of 6. 5%) if within the 10,000 capacity with a single 40-hour-per-week shift and an additional income of $16. 25 (i. e. GP of 2. 5% ) if over capacity with overtime work. ? Capacity Analysis (Table C) Assume SMC could manage to arrange a smooth production without significant fluctuation to counter the seasonal delivery. Hence, production volume could be consistent with sales volume as shown in Table A. Hence, in 1996, as total production volume still under capacity, no overtime work for PL needed. While for both 1997 and 1998, 2,100 units of PL would be produced with overtime work. Incremental Income (Table D) Based on the assumption and calculation above, total incremental income can be derived as follows. The proposal would generate an extra net profit before tax for SMC of $11,098, $88,850 and $88,850 in year 1996, 1997 and 1998 respectively. On the base of year 1995, the sharp increase in sales by 178% would bring in a 21% increase in net profit before tax. Table D Ride King199619971998 Cannibalization loss Gross Profit per unit97. 5097. 5097. 50 Cannibalized volume-26-300-300 Cannibalization lost-2,535-29,2 50-29,250 Additional Income from PL Within capacity Volume7006,1006,100 Gross Profit per unit (see Table B)42. 2542. 2542. 25 Additional Income29,575257,725257,725 Over capacity Volume02,1002,100 Gross Profit per unit (see Table B)16. 2516. 2516. 25 Additional Income034,12534,125 Total Additional Income29,575291,850291,850 Incremental Income27,040262,600262,600 Additional Cost One-time cost-$11,000$0$0 **Additional Financial expenses For additional AR (ignore that of sample)$0-$57,929-$57,929 For additional Inventory (Average inventory of 2100units. )$0-$116,091-$116,091 Additional net profit before tax$16,040$88,580$88,580 1995199619971998 Additional net profit before tax $11,098$88,580$88,580 Net Profit$430,200$446,240$518,780$518,780 % increase in net profit 3. 73%20. 59%20. 59% Sales -Ride King $2,713,354$2,535,000$2,535,000 -PL $432,250$5,063,500$5,063,500 Sales$2,730,000$3,145,350$7,598,500$7,598,500 % increase in sales 15. 21%178. 33%178. 33% For detailed information on Additional Financial Expenses, please see the Table F as follows: (To simply analysis of AR financing cost, we ignore cannibalization of the sample order, and use the same selling price and payment term of PLs for the small quantity of cannibalized Ride King. Also, we ignore the inventory financing cost for 1996. ) ** Additional Financial Expenses 199619971998 Cost to finance additional AR Cannibalized Ride King-26-300-300 PL7008,2008,200 Net Additional Unit Sales 6747,9007,900 Net increase in Sales (@617. 5)$416,195$4,878,250$4,878,250 Impact on AR (45 days /360)$52,024$609,781$609,781 Cost to finance additional AR (@ 9. 5%)$4,942$57,929$57,929 Cost to finance additional Inventory Additional average inventory (assume nil for sample order)02,1002,100 Average unit cost [=((6100*(650-42. 25)+2100*(650-33. 5))/8200]$0$582$582 Average inventory cost$0$1,222,008$1,222,008 Cost to finance additional Inventory (@ 9. 5%)$0$116,091$116,091 ? Sensitivity Analysis: In order to gauge the risks associated with the terms and conditions of the proposal, SMC tried to analyze the sensitivity of the sales and profits to the changes of terms and conditions in payment terms, inventory costs, interest rates and cannibalization volume. To illustrate the point clearer, the breakeven point of each terms and condition is calculated with other situation held constant. SensitivityNo Additional Profit Payment terms -65% 114 days Extra holding inventory-131%3,700units Interest rate-196% 14. 3% Cannibalization volume -22%1,690units Because all these conditions above are unlikely to happen, SMC can be rather confident that the proposal is quite favorable in making profits. Evaluation of the proposal Just like a coin has two sides, the proposal also has pros and cons. SMC can benefit from the private label proposal from six aspects. SMC can enjoy the increase in sales and profits after accepting the proposal. The details can be seen in the following table: 19951996 Increase*1997Increase*1998Increase* Sales2,730,0003,145,60415. 22%7,598,500178. 33%7,598,500178. 33% Net Profits430,200446,2403. 73%518,78020. 59%518,78020. 59% * % increase versus those in 1995 If SMC accepted the proposal, its sales could rocket up almost 178% in 1997, compared to sales in 1995. It profits could be increased by 21% in 1997, compared to those in 1995. The proposal posed a good opportunity to SMC to increase sales and profits. †¢SMC could also benefit from stable demands for its products in the next two years. The private proposal would offer stable orders to SMC. †¢SMC could fully utilize its currently idle production capacity. Without acceptance of this private label proposal, the idle manufacturing capacity is 5,800 units per annum, more than 50% of total capacity. The high opportunity cost incurred could not be neglected. †¢Furthermore, SMC could utilize this opportunity to make entry into the most important retail distribution channel: national retail merchandise chains, which currently accounts for 24% of the national market. †¢Moreover, this proposal could provide an extra benefit of free test market! In fact, SMC remains a regional manufacturer of riding mowers for almost half a century. Its sales had plateaued for a decade while industry as a whole embraced record increase in recent years. SMC could take this precious chance to survey customer reaction across US to its unique mid-engine products with the help of the mass merchandise distributor’s strength of marketing without even using any of SMC’s scarce valuable marketing resources. †¢Additionally, this new challenge would be a best learning opportunity for SMC when it operates on a scale twice the size of current operation. SMC could learn how to cope with the production within or even exceeding full capacity. For example, stretched manufacturing would lead to unprecedented pressure for purchasing department, warehouse management, logistics, etc. On the other hand, SMC should look at the other side of coin and analyze the cons of the private label proposal as well. †¢Upon adopting the proposal, SMC would contribute more than 50% of its capacity for Ride King to one single private label mower production. Furthermore the improvement of SMC’s own brand could be limited by the remaining 42% production capacity. Limited capacity could hamper the introduction of new product, say missing the good timing, or could lead SMC to miss the good chance to grow current brand, say if demand for current brand increased. Other than capacity, the proposal also put pressure on SMC’s other resources, such as financial budget, labor, general management, etc. Private label production would consume a certain part of the limited and valuable corporate resources. †¢Moreover, accepting proposal to manufacture private brand and distribute the private brand through other channels might lead to potential conflict with its traditional distributors. Although the chain’s outlets were located in metropolitan areas, there would be some overlap in trade areas with SMC’s current dealers. SMC, a small concern, relies heavily on its regional dealers to promote its products to consumers. Such a bold move might lead to certain percentage of independent dealers to drop the SMC line. †¢The less profitable Private Label could cannibalize 300 units of the sales of more profitable Ride King annually in 1997 and 1998. What is more, the cannibalization rate could be higher than estimated 300 units a year. †¢ Additionally, SMC had to bear the risks ssociated with the private label plan. Accepting the proposal is confronted with two uncertainties. One is that the mower producer had committed two third of its current capacity to one single distributor. Once there was no renewal of the contract, it would be difficult to develop another comparable buyer. The other is that the contract would be terminated midway, i. e. one par ty is entitled to break the deal with a six-month notice beforehand at any time. Furthermore, although the total sales and output would expand almost twice, the increase in profits will not keep the same pace with the increase of the sales. Finally, SMC should consider other potential costs. For example, sudden expanded production might lead to quality insurance challenges. The product liability claims might eat up the minute increase in profit from the contract. Plus, the warranty costs would $22 per labor hour. Alternatives: ? Alternative 1: Accept the proposal and, in the long run, develop own brand based on the experiences of private label production: SMC should incorporate the consideration of the following elements when accepting the offer. Firstly, during negotiation with the mass distributor, SMC should try its best to make the contract terms more favorable. Albeit its bargaining power is somewhat limited, as a reliable provider of a highly differentiated mower product, SMC had some say on the some part of the contract. To negotiate to transfer title upon shipment by SMC would be very reasonable and fair. Holding inventory of an average of 2,100 units in the chain’s regional warehouse under SMC’s title would be very unfavorable to SMC, given PL’s high average monthly inventory financing cost of ~$4. 61 per unit per month and even higher AR financing cost of ~$4. 9 per unit. Although SMC would not hold a big chance for this as in title transfer, still Wayne could try as 15-day could save SMC an AR financing cost of ~$19,310 a year. †¢ Secondly, in order to enhance its own brand and strengthen its own brand product, SMC should make this deal only as a short run option. Production of private label can only be regarded as a temporary way to improve SMC’s sales and profits, and is not a reliable one in the long run. To develop its core competency, SMC has to emphasize on improving its own brand image and establishing its own national distribution channel. Further actions should be taken if SMC decides to accept the proposal: Aimprove its current product mix. In its four core products, Kits makes up to 8. 2% of its annual sales yet offer zero profits. With the coordination among its relevant functional area within the firm, SMC could gradually drop the whole product line of Kits if it could not improve its profitability. BHire more temporary labor to avoid excessive overtime work Since the firm scaled up its production, it should hire temporary labor with adequate training to ensure the on-time delivery and quality control. Excessive overworking for a long period might causes the decrease in both workers’ productivity and production quality. Of course, SMC should reach a good trade-off between the costs to hire extra hands and the improvement in productivity and quality. C Establish nationwide distribution network Unsatisfied being a regional riding mower provider, SMC should take the chance of free market test provided by the private label proposal to help establish its own national distribution network. Western part of United Sates poses great new chance for SMC. DDiversification of product lines It is important for SMC to build more consumers-oriented mower in addition to its current farm mower offering. For example, mowers used in cutting the grass in garden offer great potential for SMC since SMC are already quite specialized in movers used by farmers. The change in product orientation would help it to capture different market niche and widen its target customer base. ? Alternative 2: Reject the proposal and concentrate on the development of own brands: On the other hand, SMC should consider further actions to develop alternative strategies if it rejects the proposal to produce the private label. ALaunching of new product: Trim Max. If rejecting the offer, the company could put more of its limited resources to the launch of Trim Max as a strategic move, widening its product line of trail-movers under the Swisher name. But the firm will possibly be confronted with some uncertainties, such as poor sales of Trim Max. BImproving profitability of Kits or discontinue it Among SMC’s four core products, Kits makes up to 8. 2% of SMC’s annual sales yet offers zero profits. With better coordination among its relevant functional areas within the firm, SMC could examine closely the root causes of the unprofitability of Kits and try to eliminate the non-value added portion of the value chain. If SMC cannot improve Kits’ profitability at last, it should consider dropping the production of Kits at all. CEstablishing nationwide distribution network Upon rejection of the offer, in the long run, SMC should put its efforts on establishing national distribution network for its product mix, especially Trim Max, the new introduction to the market. As we mentioned earlier, the western part of United Sates is untouched yet. SMC could try to push the distribution channel toward the western part. DDiversifying product lines The advent of the new product, Trim Max, would no doubt improve the product diversification. Furthermore, SMC should expand the newly introduced products and reduce the reliance on its old flagship product, the Ride King, which was designed in the 1950s. EMore advertising Obviously, the introduction of the new product should be fully assisted by full-scale advertisements and vigorous promotions. SMC can promote its products in the current geographic scope of distribution channel to expand the sales. Furthermore, SMC could consider vigorously promoting its product to the untouched part, the western part of US, and help to set up the national distribution channels. Final decision: After delving into all the pros and cons of the two alternatives, Wayne believes that SMC should adopt this private label proposal with eyes on the long-term development of own brand. Major reasons: For SMC, the benefits are comprised of both direct and indirect contributions. Direct cost saving and profit generation, Aexcess capacity utilization The most important reason to accept this offering is that SMC can make a full use of its capacity and make more profit. As we have explored previously, SMC has around 60% of idle capacity which comprised a potential opportunity costs. In addition, analyzing from economics’ angle, we find that total fixed costs of SMC’ s products remain unchange d with the utilization of idle capacity. The additional revenue arising from the sales of private label may possibly increase profits in SMC. BProfitability In 1996, sales can increase by 15. 2% and net profits would boost by 3. 74% after accepting the proposal. In the next two years, the sales and net profits will be rocketed to 178. 3% and 20. 59%, respectively, comparing with those in 1995. †¢ Indirect benefits on regarding the production of private label as a stepping stone to promoting SMC’s own brand AAccumulation of profits to finance future development The increased profit aroused from the contract could be accumulated as retained earning to finance the company’s future expansion. This is especially true, when SMC is of such a small scale (market share is less than one percent). It would be quite difficult to fully expand after sales and profits had plateaued for more than a decade. At this stage, private label production could provide SMC with necessary profits, which could finance future development. BAccumulation of operational experience The firm can get much precious experience on operating business on a larger scale and in full capacity. The experience includes management, marketing, operation and technology experience. All of these experiences should be considered as a preparation for great leap in the future. One afternoon in early 1996, Wayne Swisher, satisfied with his analysis about the current and future development of SMC, was confident that SMC could both benefit from the private label proposal, the birds at hand, and stay in track with the long-term development of SMC’s own brand. The funds, raised by utilization of excess capacity and the production of private label, and the experiences learned from production in full capacity, could assist SWC to step further to fully develop its own brands in the long run.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Spains Arab Connection Influenced the Language

Spain's Arab Connection Influenced the Language If you speak either Spanish or English, you probably speak more Arabic than you think. Its not real Arabic youre speaking, but rather words that come from the Arabic language. After Latin and English, Arabic is probably the biggest contributor of words to the Spanish language. A large portion of English-Spanish cognates that dont come from Latin come from Arabic. Spanish Words and Arabic Origins If you know much about etymology, the English words youre most likely to think of as Arabic origin are those that start with al-. This includes words such as algebra, Allah, alkali, and alchemy. These words exist in Spanish as lgebra, Al, lcali, and alquimia, respectively. But they are far from the only Arabic-derived words in Spanish. A variety of other types of common words such as coffee, zero, and sugar (cafà ©, cero, and azà ºcar in Spanish) also come from Arabic. The introduction of Arabic words into Spanish began in earnest in the eighth century. But even before then, some words of Latin and Greek origin had roots in Arabic. People living in what is now Spain spoke Latin at one time, but over the centuries, Spanish and other Romance languages (such as French and Italian) gradually differentiated themselves. The Latin dialect that eventually became Spanish was highly influenced by the invasion of the Arabic-speaking Moors in 711. For many centuries, Latin/Spanish and Arabic existed side by side. Even today, many Spanish place names retain Arabic roots. It wasnt until late in the 15th century that the Moors were expelled. By then, literally thousands of Arabic words had become part of Spanish. Although it is believed that the English words alfalfa and alcove, which originally were Arabic, entered English by way of Spanish (alfalfa and alcoba), most Arabic words in English probably entered the language by other routes. Keep in mind also that Arabic has changed substantially since the 15th century. Some Arabic words from then arent necessarily still in use, or they have changed in meaning. aceite - oilaceituna - oliveadobe - adobeaduana - customs (as at a border)ajedrez - chessAl - Allahalacrn - scorpionalbacora - albacorealbahaca - basilalberca - tank, swimming poolalcalde - mayorlcali - alkalialcatraz - pelicanalczar - fortress, palacealcoba - bedroom, alcovealcohol - alcoholalfil - bishop (in chess)alfombra - carpetalgarroba - carobalgodà ³n - cottonalgoritmo - algorithmalmacà ©n - storagealmanaque - almanacalmirante - admiralalmohada - pillowalquiler - rentalquimia - alchemyamalgama - amalgamaà ±il - indigoarroba - symbolarroz - riceasesino - assassinatà ºn - tunaayatol - ayatollahazafrn - saffronazar - chanceazà ºcar - sugarazul - blue (same source as English azure)balde - bucketbarrio  - districtberenjena - eggplantburca - burqacafà © - coffeecero - zerochivo - billy goatcifra - cifraCorn - Korancuscà ºs - couscousdado - die (singular of dice)espinaca - spinachfez - fezfulano - whats-his-namegacela - gazelleguitarra - guitarhachà ­s - hashishharà ©n - haremhasta - untilimn - imamislam - Islamjaque - check (in chess)jaque mate - checkmatejirafa - giraffelaca - lacquerlila - lilaclima - limelimà ³n - lemonloco - crazymacabro - macabremarfil - marble, ivorymasacre - massacremasaje - massagemscara - maskmazapn - marzipanmezquita - mosquemomia - mummymono - monkeymuslim - muslimnaranja - orangeojal - I hope, God willingolà © - bravoparaà ­so - paradiseramadn - Ramadanrehà ©n - hostagerincà ³n - corner, nooksandà ­a - watermelonsof - sofasorbete  - sherbetrubio - blondtalco - talctamarindo - tamarindtarea - tasktarifa - tarifftrtaro - tartartaza - cuptoronja - grapefruitzafra - harvestzanahoria - carrotzumo - juice

Monday, March 2, 2020

Definition and Examples of Possessive Determiners

Definition and Examples of Possessive Determiners In English grammar, a possessive determiner is a type of function word  used in front of a noun to express possession or belonging (as in my phone).   The possessive determiners in English are my, your, his, her, its, our, and their. As  Lobeck and Denham point out, theres some overlap between possessive determiners and possessive pronouns. The basic difference, they say, is that pronouns replace full noun phrases. Possessive determiners, on the other hand, have to occur with a noun (Navigating English Grammar, 2014). Possessive determiners are sometimes called possessive adjectives, weak possessive pronouns, genitive pronouns, possessive determiner pronouns,  or simply possessives. Determiner and Grammar Rules CaseDeterminerGenitiveFirst-Person PronounsGenitiveModificationPersonal PronounPossessive CasePossessive PronounQuantifierSecond-Person PronounsSentence Completion Exercise: Personal Pronouns and Possessive DeterminersThird-Person PronounsUsing the Different Forms of Pronouns Examples and Observations One man, I remember, used to take off his hat and set fire to his hair every now and then, but I do not remember what it proved, if it proved anything at all, except that he was a very interesting man.(Dylan Thomas, Quite Early One Morning, 1954)Every society honors its live conformists and its dead troublemakers.(Mignon McLaughlin, The Complete Neurotics Notebook. Castle Books, 1981Id like to be alone with my sandwich for a moment.(Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)He drifted off into sleep and Janie looked down on him and felt a self-crushing love. So her soul crawled out from its hiding place.(Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, 1937If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer.(Henry David Thoreau, Walden You might as well fall flat on your face as lean over too far backward.(James Thurber, The Bear Who Let It AloneThe sextant was old. I found it stacked up with a collection of gramophones and ladies workboxes in a junk shop. Its brass frame was mottled green-and-black, the silvering on its mirrors had started to blister and peel off.(Jonathan Raban, Sea-Room. For Love Money: Writing, Reading, Travelling, 1969-1987. Collins Harvill, 1987 Children begin by loving their parents; after a time they judge them; rarely, if ever, do they forgive them.(Oscar WildeMy hovercraft is full of eels.(John Cleese as the Hungarian in The Hungarian Phrasebook Sketch. Monty Pythons Flying Circus, Dec. 15, 1970Our task must be to free ourselves by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature and its beauty.(Albert EinsteinAll happy families resemble one another, but each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.(Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina Possessive Adjective or Determiner? The title   possessive adjective is actually more often used than possessive determiner but the latter is a more accurate description. Admittedly, in his car, the word his goes before the noun car and to that extent behaves as an adjective, but in *the his car (compare the old car) it shows itself not to be an adjective; it certainly doesnt describe the car itself. (Tony Penston, A Concise Grammar for English Language Teachers. TP Publications, 2005) Possessive Pronouns and Possessive Determiners Most  possessive determiners are  similar to their corresponding possessive pronouns: her is a possessive determiner, while hers is a possessive pronoun. The possessive determiners his and its are identical to their corresponding possessive pronouns. The function in the sentence determines the part of speech. In The red Toyota is his car, his is a determiner because its introducing the noun phrase car. In The red Toyota is his, his is a pronoun because its functioning as a noun phrase. In The company made this pen, this is a determiner. In The company made this, its a pronoun because it stands in place of a noun phrase.   (June Casagrande,  It Was the Best of Sentences, It Was the Worst of Sentences. Ten Speed Press, 2010) [The] construction with the possessive pronoun [e.g. a friend of mine] differs from the alternative of possessive determiner noun (e.g. my friend) mainly in that it is more indefinite. The sentences in (30) below illustrates this point: (30) a. You know John? A friend of his told me that the food served at that restaurant is awful.(30) b. You know John? His friend told me that the food served at that restaurant is awful. The construction with the possessive pronoun, in (30a), can be used if the speaker hasnt specified and doesnt need to specify the identity of the friend. In contrast, the construction with the possessive determiner, in (30b), implies that the speaker and listener both know what friend is intended. (Ron Cowan, The Teachers Grammar of English: A Course Book and Reference Guide. Cambridge University Press, 2008)

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Networking technologies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Networking technologies - Essay Example Today, computer networks have become an important aspect in present day communication. A lot of activities and processes are controlled by computer networks. Advancement made in computer network has highly improved the level of communication. However, for effective operations, computers have to be connected to each other and other peripheral devices (Bhunia, 2006, 99). This research paper is about standard office software, file sharing and printing capabilities in a computer network for all employees working in an organization. The paper will examine a bespoke client server application accessing a locally stored database with sensitive data accessible by only 20 employees. It will as well outline a proposal to upgrade an intranet accessible to each employee of the organization and an extranet accessible by trusted clients and an internet site for carrying out clients’ orders. Using ADSL for internet connectivity posses a security problem that brought about by its use, those using this kind of internet lack security since it is are very easy for hackers to hack the data on transit since there is no software to block hackers from reaching sensitive information (Shashi, 2007, 141). The use of Ethernet in LAN cause insecurity to data they transmit because it is a broadcast system. This implies that while transmitting information in this system, there are different segments that transferred data must move through towards the receiving computer. The hackers can use some sniffing programs to out data as it moves from the host towards the receiver (Simmonds and Ekert 2004, 320). Further, adoption of peer-to-peer technology to reduce the expense of coaxial cables in Ethernet LAN, at the same gives an unsecured networking because it bases its operation on sharing of information. Other computers in the group can access sensitive information that they share on the network. The network infrastructures like hubs and